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【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之武当山古建筑群(中英双语)
时间:2021-04-21 15:05 来源:快资讯 作者:汪叽大宝贝

 


  “武当山古建筑中的宫阙庙宇集中体现了中国元、明、清三代世俗和宗教建筑的建筑学和艺术成就。古建筑坐落在沟壑纵横、风景如画的湖北省武当山麓,在明代期间逐渐形成规模,其中的道教建筑可以追溯到公元7世纪,这些建筑代表了近千年的中国艺术和建筑的最高水平。”以上是1994年联合国教科文组织将武当山古建筑筑列入世界文化遗产时对其作出的评价。

    武当山是唐代以降道教的发祥地,又名太和宫,位于湖北十堰丹江口境内。在唐宋时期,武当山已经开始修建道观,但进一步的修建规模是在元代。而真正让武当山道教建筑达到鼎盛的是明成祖永乐皇帝朱棣。在他的主持下,武当山大兴土木历时十二年,建成9宫、9观、36庵堂、72岩庙的庞大规模建筑群,终成道教最大洞天及皇家宗教建筑的典范。


    武当山主峰天柱峰海拔1612米,四周有七十二峰相围。天柱峰巅的平台中央建有金殿,以重檐庑殿顶的最高皇家建筑规制,成为武当山建筑群的中心。金殿也是中国现存最大的古代铜铸镏金大殿,充分体现出中国古代铸造业和建筑业高水准。
   
    围绕着金殿的是紫金城,这是永乐皇帝以自己居住的北京“紫禁城”为蓝本,为真武大帝在人间修建的“玉京”宫城。紫金城是一组建在悬崖之上的城墙,蜿蜒于山间峭壁上,墙体以条石砌筑,每块重达千斤重。紫金城墙周长345米,最高处达10米。紫金城四方各建一座仿木构的青石质天门,单檐歇山顶式,象征天阙。其中东、西、北三面天门前临绝壁,均只起象征作用,只有经南天门均实际出入。

 

紫金城南天门下是太和宫,有朝拜殿、钟鼓楼、正殿和古铜殿等建筑,依山傍岩、结构精巧。其中古铜殿位于天柱峰前的小莲峰巅,殿内置元代古铜殿为中国最早的铜铸木结构建筑,全由铜铸构件拼装而成,原置于天柱峰金顶。

作为武当山八大宫观规模之首的紫霄宫,亦是武当山保存最完整的建筑群。这座被明永乐皇帝封为“紫霄福地”的宫殿,现存有龙虎殿、十方堂、紫霄殿、圣父母殿等建筑29栋。主殿紫霄殿建于三层饰栏崇台之上,重檐歇山顶,壮观巍峨,是武当山建筑群中最有代表性的木构建筑。

 

    南岩宫因建于南岩峭壁之上而得名,在元代时已颇具规模。南岩宫建筑依山蜿蜒转折而建,严谨中富于变化。明代建立的两座御碑亭隔山而立,完全突破了对称的格局。南岩石殿天乙真庆宫立于悬崖之上,为元代的青石结构仿木构建筑,其所有构件均为青石质地,以榫卯拼装而成。与它并立的两仪殿则因殿前悬挑于绝壁外的龙头香而闻名天下。它们集精巧的建筑结构和精湛的雕刻艺术于一身,显示了中国古代艺术与建筑的高水平。

全文翻译

    The Golden Shrine is surrounded by the stone-walled Forbidden City which was constructed at the order of Emperor Zhu Di for Emperor Zhenwu(a high-ranking Taoist deity)as his “Jade Capital” on earth according to the structure of “The Forbidden City” in Beijing where Emperor Zhu Di lived. The stone-walled Forbidden City consists of several stone city walls zigzagging along the cliff on the mountain. The boulder strip used for building the walls could be as heavy as 500 kilograms for each. The girth of the walls is 345 meters and the highest part reaches 10 meters. There is one wood- imitation gate house made of blue stone with single-eave hip-and-gable roof at each of the four directions, representing the Gates of Heaven. Among them, the ones on the east, west and north are right on the cliff in the front, so they only play a symbolic role. The entrance is actually South Heavenly Gate.

    The Purple Heaven Palace is the largest one of the eight major palaces and monasteries of Wudang Mountains and the best preserved building complex there. In the palace named as “Paradise of Purple Clouds”by Emperor Yongle of Ming Dynasty, there are 29 buildings including Long Hu Hall (Dragon and Tiger Hall), Shi Fang Hall (Ten Directions Hall), Zi Xiao Hall (Purple Clouds Hall), Sheng Fu Mu Hall (Scared Parents Hall), and so on. The main hall is the Purple Heaven Hall constructed on three layers of platforms with decorated railings. The spectacular building with double-eave hip-and-gable roof is the most representative wooden architecture on the Wudang Mountains.


 

  (责任编辑:弈基)